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The population of Europe (including the European successor republics of the former USSR) stood at 742.7 million on 1 January 2000. This was 51,000 fewer than a year before, and a rate of decline similar to that of 1998, when it contracted by 58,000.




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The continent-wide population trend is very uneven (Table A): it is growing steadily in western Europe, but shrinking everywhere else. The most significant decline occurred in the former Soviet republics, particularly Russia. While more than 70% of western Europe's population growth stems from immigration, the rest of Europe's population loss is due mainly to an excess of deaths over births, aggravated in central Europe by a negative net migration count. Also, while Japan's growth rate was very much akin to that of western Europe, its composition was significantly different:


* European Demographic Observatory (Observatoire Démographique Européen: ODE) and National Institute of Demographic Studies, INED, 133, bd Davout - 75980 Paris, Cedex 20, tel: 01 56 06 20 40, fax: 01 56 06 21 99, e-mail: odeurope@francenet.fr Translated by Glenn D. Robertson. "'This review draws on the European Demographic Observatory's (ODE) database, the results of the first joint data collection exercise by the Council of Europe, Eurostat and the United Nations, and the published figures of national statistical offices. A debt of thanks is owed to Alain Confesson, whose updating of the ODE's database maximized the consistent information available. Minor inconsistencies may be discerned between the (rounded-off) values shown in the tables and the narrative, which is based on the precise values.


This document provides code snippets for user-defined counter styles used by various cultures around the world, and can be used as a reference for those wishing to create their own user-defined counter styles for CSS style sheets.


This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at


This document describes counter styles used by various cultures around the world and can be used as a reference for those wishing to define user-defined counter styles for CSS. The content of this document was originally part of the CSS Lists and Counters specification, but is now published as a standalone document by the W3C Internationalization Working Group. The Working Group expects this document to become a Working Group Note.


If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please raise them as github issues . Only send comments by email if you are unable to raise issues on github (see links below). All comments are welcome.


This document was published by the Internationalization Working Group as a Working Draft. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to www-international@w3.org (subscribe, archives). All comments are welcome.


Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.


This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. The group does not expect this document to become a W3C Recommendation. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.


Browsers that implement the CSS Counter Styles Level 3 specification provide a mechanism for authors to create user-defined counter styles for use with CSS list-markers and generated-content counters.


As a content author, unless the counter style you want to use is one of a small set that are predefined in the specification, you yourself will need to define how it works in your style sheet. To make it easier for you, this document provides code snippets that people have already worked out for a large set of user-defined and predefined styles, covering more than 25 writing systems around the world.


If you find what you are looking for, you can simply cut and paste the style you need into your stylesheet. Alternatively, you can use the styles here for inspiration, or adapt them to suit your preferences.


The CSS Counter Styles Level 3 specification includes a number of predefined counter-styles for which browsers are expected to implement built-in support. The definitions of those styles are also included here, for ease of reference, and identified as such by a note.


We try to only include in this document counter styles that are in regular use in the wild, and we are particularly interested in supporting the needs of people who use non-Latin scripts. You may find more experimental or new templates on other sites, such as that provided by Christoph Päper.


At the time of writing, the CSS Counter Styles Level 3 specification is still in the Candidate Recommendation phase, and custom counter styles are not widely supported in browsers. Hopefully this will change soon, although browser implementers implement things sooner if they receive requests from users. See a set of basic tests to find which browsers support this feature. On browsers that don't support custom counter styles, the counter styles will fall back to the default.


You can call these styles or the ones you invent yourself by whatever name you prefer. For example, if you prefer to call the persian counter style extended-arabic, you can just change the name of the counter style. Bear in mind, however, that a counter style called persian is likely to be more widely supported at the moment than a custom style called extended-arabic (see the tests) because it has native support in most major browsers, so using standard names can sometimes be beneficial.


The Internationalization Working Group expects this document to be updated from time to time as new information or corrections are added. If you wish to propose new information to be included here, please raise an issue in github (preferred) or write to www-international@w3.org.


However, before submitting a counter-style template for inclusion, please gather evidence that is actually in use in the wild. For example, it is easy to conceive different alphabetic lists that correspond to various European languages, but we haven't yet seen good evidence that such lists are used widely, and so they are not included here. You should also provide a counter style definition for a template you'd like to see included.


Informal or ad hoc romanizations of Cyrillic have been in use since the early days of electronic communications, starting from early e-mail and bulletin board systems.[1] Their use faded with the advances in the Russian internet that made support of Cyrillic script standard,[1] but resurfaced with the proliferation of instant messaging, SMS and mobile phone messaging in Russia.


More recently the term "translit" emerged to indiscriminately refer to both programs that transliterate Cyrillic (and other non-Latin alphabets) into Latin, as well as the result of such transliteration. The word is an abbreviation of the term transliteration, and most probably its usage originated in several places. An example of early "translit" is the DOS program TRANSLIT [2] by Jan Labanowski, which runs from the command prompt to convert a Cyrillic file to a Latin one using a specified transliteration table.


There are two basic varieties of romanization of Russian: transliterations and Leetspeak-type of rendering of Russian text. The latter one is often heavily saturated with common English words, which are often much shorter than the corresponding Russian ones, and is sometimes referred to as Runglish or Russlish.


Translit is a method of encoding Cyrillic letters with Latin ones. The term is derived from transliteration, the system of replacing letters of one alphabet with letters of another. Translit found its way into web forums, chats, messengers, emails, MMORPGs and other network games. Some Cyrillic web sites had a translit version for cases of encoding problems.


Translit received its last development impulse with the increasing availability of mobile phones in Cyrillic-using countries. At first, the situation was the same as with computers; neither mobile phones nor mobile network operators supported Cyrillic. Although mobile phone technology now supports Unicode including all variants of Cyrillic alphabets, a single SMS in Unicode is limited to 70 characters, whereas a Latinate SMS can have up to 160 characters. If a message exceeds the character limit, it is split into multiple parts. That makes messages written in Cyrillic more expensive.


The name Volapuk encoding comes from the constructed language Volapük, for two reasons. Cyrillic text written in this way looks strange and often funny, just as a Volapük-language text may appear. At the same time, the word "Volapük" ("Волапюк/Воляпюк" Volapyuk/Volyapyuk in Russian) itself sounds close to the words "воля" (will) and "пук" (fart), funny enough for the name to have stuck.


The term was popularized by its use in the first Soviet commercially available UUCP and TCP/IP network, RELCOM (a typical networking software package included Cyrillic KOI-8 to Volapuk transcoding utilities called tovol and fromvol, originally implemented by Vadim Antonov), making it the likely origin of the usage of Volapuk as applied to Cyrillic encoding.


Volapuk and Translit have been in use since the early days of the Internet to write e-mail messages and other texts in Russian where the support of Cyrillic fonts was limited: either the sender did not have a keyboard with Cyrillic letters or the receiver did not necessarily have Cyrillic screen fonts. In the early days, the situation was aggravated by a number of mutually incompatible computer encodings for the Cyrillic script, so that the sender and receiver were not guaranteed to have the same one. Also, the 7-bit character encoding of the early days was an additional hindrance. 041b061a72


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